Thursday, December 9, 2010

list bio technology "biogas upgrading" book

"biogas upgrading" book

Biogas upgrading

Raw biogas produced from digestion is roughly 60% methane and 29% CO2 with trace elements of H2S, and is not high quality enough if the owner was planning on selling this gas or using it as fuel gas for machinery. The corrosive nature of H2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of an expensive plant. The solution is the use of a biogas upgrading or purification process whereby contaminants in the raw biogas stream are adsorbed or scrubbed, leaving 98% methane per unit volume of gas. There are four main methods of biogas upgrading, these include water washing, pressure swing adsorption, selexol adsorption and chemical treatment. The most prevalent method is water washing where high pressure gas flows into a column where the carbon dioxide and other trace elements are scrubbed by cascading water running counter-flow to the gas. This arrangement can deliver 98% methane with manufacturers guaranteeing maximum 2% methane loss in the system. It takes roughly between 3-6% of the total energy output in gas to run a biogas upgrading system.

[edit] Biogas gas-grid injection

Gas-grid injection is the injection of biogas into the methane grid (natural gas grid). Injections includes biogas:[23] until the breakthrough of micro combined heat and power two-thirds of all the energy produced by biogas power plants was lost (the heat), using the grid to transport the gas to customers, the electricity and the heat can be used for on-site generation [24] resulting in a reduction of losses in the transportation of energy. Typical energy losses in natural gas transmission systems range from 1–2%. The current energy losses on a large electrical system range from 5–8%.[25]

[edit] Legislation

 

wikipedia

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Genetic Analysis Software anc bio technology information

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Overview

Richa Agarwala and Alejandro Schäffer are working together and separately on various software packages for analysis of genetic data. This page briefly summarizes several ongoing projects and provides hyperlinks to a more detailed page about each project, download software, and references for papers.
Summary of ongoing projects
FASTLINK

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Alejandro Schäffer has led the development of the FASTLINK software package for genetic linkage analysis. Genetic linkage analysis is a statistical technique used to map genes and find the approximate locations of disease genes. FASTLINK aims to replace the main programs of the widely used package LINKAGE by doing the same computations faster. FASTLINK can also run in parallel either on a shared-memory computer or on a network of workstations. FASTLINK adds much new documentation. FASTLINK has been used in over 1000 published genetic studies. FASTLINK is freely available by ftp; follow the hyperlink to the FASTLINK page for more details.
MSA

In collaboration with Sandeep Gupta, Alejandro Schäffer developed a significantly faster and more space-efficient version of the program MSA to do multiple sequence alignment. Follow the hyperlink to the MSA page to retrieve the paper and software.
CASPAR

Richa Agarwala, Jeremy Buhler (Washington U.), and Alejandro Schäffer have developed software to do conditional linkage analysis of polygenic diseases such as diabetes, asthma, and glaucoma. The software is called CASPAR (Computerized Affected Sibling Pair Analyzer and Reporter). Other participants in the design of CASPAR are: Kenneth Gabbay (Baylor College of Medicine), Prof. Marek Kimmel (Rice University) and David Owerbach (Baylor College of Medicine). Follow the hyperlink to the CASPAR page to retrieve the software.
PedHunter

Richa Agarwala has developed software called PedHunter to query a genealogical database. Among the problems PedHunter solves is how best to connect a set of relatives with the same disease into a pedigree suitable for input to genetic linkage analysis. PedHunter is currently being used at NCBI to query the Amish Genealogy database(AGDB), a database of over 295,000 members of the Amish and Mennonite religious groups, and their relatives. Other participants in the design of PedHunter and AGDB include Leslie Biesecker (NHGRI/NIH), Clair Francomano (now at NIA/NIH), and Alejandro Schäffer. PedHunter is being used by other research groups to query other genealogical databases. PedHunter query software comes in two flavors that depend on how the genealogy is stored: in a SYBASE database or in ASCII text files. Follow one of the two PedHunter hyperlinks to retrieve a paper and software.
Software to analyze comparative genomic hybridization data

Richard Desper and Alejandro Schäffer have developed software, called oncotrees, to analyze data on tumors to study models of oncogenesis. The software is designed to analyze data generated by a technique called comparative genomic hybridization, but it has also been used to analyze cytogenetic breakpoint data. The focus of the software is to infer tree models that relate genetic aberrations to tumor progression. Participants in the design of the software include Olli Kallioniemi (NHGRI/NIH) and Christos Papadimitriou (UCBerkeley).
Software for radiation hybrid mapping and map integration

Richa Agarwala and Alejandro Sch&aumlffer developed software, called rh_tsp_map, to construct radiation hybrid maps and to integrate maps that contain overlapping marker sets. Many improvements in version 3.0 of rh_tsp_map were implemented by Edward Rice. He is also first author of an extensive tutorial and set of man pages that now accompany the rh_tsp_map download shown as a link on the left. The radiation hybrid mapping methods are based on: a new strategy to select framework markers, a known reduction from the radiation hybrid mapping problem to the traveling salesman problem, and using the existing software CONCORDE to solve large instances of the traveling salesman problem. The map construction software was used at NCBI to construct dense human radiation hybrid maps. Follow the link on the right to learn more about these maps. The software has also been used to construct maps of the cat and the dog, which are described in some of the references, as well as other vertebrates. Participants at NCBI include Donna Maglott, Greg Schuler, and Alejandro Schäffer. David Applegate and William Cook, co-developers of CONCORDE, collaborated on its usage for radiation hybrid map construction. William Murphy (Texas A&M) supplied the data for and collaborated on constructing maps of the cat. Christophe Hitte (University of Rennes, France) constructed the maps of the dog and independently compared our software to other, competing packages.
Software to analyze microarray data

In collaboration with Javed Khan (NCI), Richard Desper and Alejandro Schäffer have developed a software package as an aid to classification problems generated by gene expression data. The software package METrics on EXPression data (METREX) calculates any of a variety of metrics on gene expression data.
Expression data typically comes in the form of a matrix of values for a number of genes that have each been measured in a number of different tissues, tumors, or cell lines. One common problem is that the number of variables can be enormous and defy simple comprehension. A number of techniques have been developed to classify the genes (or the cell lines or tumors) based on the patterns seen in the data matrix.

The main program metrex provides metrics on the data matrix that can be used by various classification programs to classify the rows or columns of the input matrix. The input format is described in the file readme.metrex that comes with the distribution. The program outputs a distance matrix in the popular Phylip format that can be used as input to most phylogeny building programs, including Fitch and Neighbor from the Phylip package of Joseph Felsenstein, the FastME program of Desper and Gascuel, and the comprehensive phylogeny program Paup of Swofford



Research Overview The research program in the Computational Biology Branch is carried out by Senior Investigators, tenure track Investigators, Staff Scientists, Postdoctoral Fellows, and students. The program focuses on theoretical, analytical and applied approaches to a broad range of fundamental problems in molecular biology.

The expertise of the group is concentrated in sequence analysis, protein structure/function analysis, and gene identification, yet research interests cover a wide range of topics in computational biology and information science. Briefly, these include but are not limited to: database searching algorithms, low-complexity sequences, sequence signals, mathematical models of evolution, statistical methods in virology, dynamic behavior of chemical reaction systems, statistical text-retrieval algorithms, protein structure and function prediction, comparative genomics, taxonomic trees, and population genetics.

Many of the basic research projects conducted by CBB investigators serve to enhance and strengthen NCBI’s suite of publicly available databases and software application tools. Collaborative research efforts, among NCBI investigators as well as with the external research community, have led to the development of innovative algorithms (BLAST, PSI-BLAST, SEG, VAST, and COGs) and novel research approaches (text neighboring) that have transformed the field of computational biology. Algorithms and applications currently under development have the potential to further advance scientific discovery.

Members of the CBB contribute significantly to the validity and reliability of NCBI’s online resources by reviewing the quality and accuracy of the data deposited in the databases, as well as the accuracy of the information used to annotate the data. Members also provide leadership and guidance to the extramural community by planning and organizing scientific consortia to determine the most effective use of public sequence resources for large-scale or high-throughput experimental biology. Researchers collaborate to define known research gaps and to identify mechanisms to bridge these gaps.

blue bulletAddress
Computational Biology Branch
NCBI, NLM, NIH
8600 Rockville Pike MSC 6075
Building 38A, Room 6N601
Bethesda, MD 20894-6075
U.S.A.
Phone: 301-496-2475

Revised: July 1, 2010

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Tuesday, November 30, 2010

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The Biotechnology Institute’s mission is to engage, excite, and educate as many people as possible, particularly young people, about biotechnology and its immense potential to heal the sick, feed the hungry, restore the environment, and fuel the economy.


Media Inquiries

The Biotechnology Institute is pleased to serve the news media


Biotechnology EDUCATION News

Parkinson's Research Sends Burlington, NC, Student to China. After spending last summer researching a protein that's significant in Parkinson's disease, writing a research paper about it and presenting it to educators, a Burlington teen is heading to China to share what she's learned. Melanie Wiley, 18, who currently attends the N.C. School of Science and Mathematics in Durham, is one four students from the state representing the American delegation in Beijing, China this week at the Beijing Youth Science Creation Competition. Wiley and the others in the delegation won't actually compete while in China, but they will present their research. On March 14, Wiley won third place for the research in the biotechnology section at the N.C. Student Academy of Science competition. On Monday, she attended the Junior Science and Humanities Symposium hosted by the University of North Carolina at Charlotte where she won second place for a poster presentation of the same research. (Burlington Times News, 3/21/08.)

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

amgen bio technology companies

Amgen Inc. (NASDAQ: AMGN, SEHK: 4332) is an international biotechnology company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. Located in the Conejo Valley, Amgen is the world's largest independent biotech firm. The company employs approximately 17,000 staff members. Its products include Epogen, Aranesp, Enbrel, Kineret, Neulasta, Neupogen, Sensipar / Mimpara, Nplate, and Prolia. Epogen and Neupogen (the company's first products on the market) were the two most successful biopharmaceutical products at the time of their respective releases.

BusinessWeek ranked Amgen first on the S&P 500 for being one of the most "future-oriented" of those five hundred corporations.[3] BusinessWeek ostensibly calculated the ratio of research and development spending, combined with capital spending, to total outlays; Amgen had the fourth highest ratio, at 506:1000.

Amgen is the largest employer in Thousand Oaks and second only to the United States Navy in terms of number of people employed in Ventura County.

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With plans to expand into a new campus under construction in South San Francisco, Amgen abruptly halted construction on the plans and instead put the 365,000 square feet (33,900 m2) of new space on the sublease market.[4]

It is a leading member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, a coalition of over 400 companies and NGOs that promotes increased funding for US diplomatic and international development programs.[5]

In 2006, Amgen began sponsoring the Tour of California, one of only three major Union Cycliste Internationale events in the United States.

List of biotechnology companies

A biotechnology company is a company whose products or services primarily use biotechnology methods for their production, this word from wikipedia, for share technology bio. design or delivery.[citation needed] Examining the list of the top 100 such companies, below, shows that many have negative income. This is consistent with the notion that only one in ten biotechnology companies were considered profitable in mid-2005.[1]



1 Amgen USA



2 Genzyme USA



3 UCB Belgium



4 Gilead Sciences USA



5 Serono Switzerland



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6. Biogen Idec USA
7 CSL Australia
8 Cephalon USA
9 MedImmune USA
10 Celgene USA
11 Abraxis BioScience USA
12 Actelion Switzerland
13 ImClone Systems USA
16 Amylin Pharmaceuticals USA
17 Millennium Pharmaceuticals

usa is country mayority in bio technology company its from list 



Saturday, November 13, 2010

Biotechnology - An Introduction By M. W Ahmad

this article write by MW Ahmad in here
Biotechnology is one of the innovative branches of science. Biotechnology has created new revolutions in this era by contributing industries, medical sciences, food technologies and genetics.
"Biotechnology is basically defined as the use of living organisms, their parts and their biochemical processes for the creation of beneficial products."
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as:
"Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use."
History of Biotechnology
This is an incorrect perception that Biotechnology is a new field. However, this is utterly wrong. The production of yogurt and cheese from the milk is an old and simple technique of this field. Man has been using this method for centuries. Production of beer, leavening bread and making of the wine from fruit juices are some techniques of biotechnology. Humans have been using breeding techniques to produce different desirable crops and animals for many years. The use of different organisms and plants for the control of pests and nitrogen production is another example of this field. The researches of some archeologists have revealed that some of these techniques were used before 5,000 B.C.
The invention of the microscope aided the progress of biotechnology, as man got the ability to observe the small organisms. Pasture's work can also be referred as the foundation of modern biotechnology, because he showed the presence of microorganisms and their mechanism of working. On the other hand, the work of Gregor Mendel also gave rise to this field in that particular era.
History of Modern Biotechnology
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Karl Ereky was the first person, who used the term "biotechnology" for some specific biological techniques to produce crops, meat and milk, in 1917. He mentioned this word in his book.
In 1953, American biochemist James Watson and British biophysicist Francis Crick presented their double-helix model of DNA. This discovery is referred as the beginning of modern biotechnology. Werner Arber discovered the special restriction enzymes for DNA. In 1973, American geneticist Stanley Cohen and American biochemist Herbert succeeded in the removal of a specific gene from a bacterium, and they inserted it into other by the help of the restriction enzymes. This invention started the era of DNA technology, commonly called genetic engineering. In 1977, attempts were made to produce insulin from bacteria by inserting human gene in it. In 1980s, The Human Genome Project was started, which is regarded as the significant project of biotechnology.

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Thursday, November 11, 2010

bio technology information

 bio technology information in above is tag line or world list for reference

1,Peer Reviewed
2,About Biotechnology
3,Agricultural Biotechnology
4,Conferences Worldwide
5,Biotechnology News
6,Biotechnology Industry
7,Genetic Engineering
8,Biotechnology Institute
9,Biotechnology Conferences
10,Biotechnology Business
11,Biotechnology Companies
12,Biological Substances
13,Biotechnology Holds
14,Biotechnology Overview
15,Biotechnology Information
16,Biotechnology Definition
17,Biotechnology Articles
18,Cougar Biotechnology
19,Biotechnology Revolution
20,Conferences Conventions
21,Dupont Biotechnology
22,Electronic Journal
23,Cruz Biotechnology
24,Genetically Modified
25,Industrial Biotechnology
26,Industry Center
27,Industry News
28,Learn About
29,Massachusetts Biotechnology
30,Microorganisms Such
31,Nature Biotechnology
32,Overview Industry
33,Degree Programs
34,Santa Cruz
35,Substances Such
36,Trade Shows
37,Worldwide Conferences
38,Biological Substances Such
39,Biotechnology Conferences Worldwide
40,Biotechnology Overview Industry
41,Learn About Biotechnology
42,Overview Industry Center
43,Santa Cruz Biotechnology
this list in 12 November 2010 update an for reference bio technology center

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Peer Reviewed About biotechnology biotechnology Business biotechnology Holds

Peer Reviewed About biotechnology biotechnology Business biotechnology Holds
Comesa states in talks to harmonise GMO regulations BIO / Biofuels Digest Poll: Hot Trends for ' PolyMedix Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Data Published in Molecular Oral ... "Awaiting FDA decision on vilazodone Clinical Data reports narrower loss in ..." Local biotechnology companies to collect $. million in health care grants "Sirona Biochem to Attend Bio -Europe Conference in Munich Germany",Momenta Pharmaceuticals Announces Nature biotechnology Publication.Prana biotechnology Plans to Advance Alzheimer's Clinical Trial,Biomagnetics Ends Acquisition Related Quiet Period - To Spin Off Chinese Bio,Vicor Technologies to Present at Life Tech Capital's First Annual Miami,biotechnology scientist to speak at Missouri State,"Plants Sun and Advanced Technology Give Ingeo™ Bioplastic Improved Eco ..." "Awaiting FDA decision on vilazodone Clinical Data reports narrower loss in ..." US patent office awards patents to Xoma's diabetes drug Biovista signs development deal with Pfizer for undisclosed amount Biotech Firm's Drug Pact at Risk

"Earnings Roundup: Rockwell Automation ArQule" PolyMedix Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Data Published in Molecular Oral ... Biovista signs development deal with Pfizer for undisclosed amount BIO / Biofuels Digest Poll: Hot Trends for ' Dyadic International to Announce Third Quarter Financial Results and Hold ... "Awaiting FDA decision on vilazodone Clinical Data reports narrower loss in ..." "Samsung Electro-Mechanics' Jong-Woo Park: Targeting smart grid electric ..." JB College to offer biotechnology

biotechnology news today
"Samsung Electro-Mechanics' Jong-Woo Park: Targeting smart grid electric ..." Dyadic International to Announce Third Quarter Financial Results and Hold ... "Samsung Electro-Mechanics' Jong-Woo Park: Targeting smart grid electric ..." Comesa states in talks to harmonise GMO regulations US patent office awards patents to Xoma's diabetes drug China Kangtai Cactus Bio -tech Inc. Announces Export Contract With Taiwan ...

BIO / Biofuels Digest Poll: Hot Trends for ' S* BIO Pte Ltd-Company Report - new market analysis released "Samsung Electro-Mechanics' Jong-Woo Park: Targeting smart grid electric ..." JB College to offer biotechnology Biotech Firm's Drug Pact at Risk Biotech Firm's Drug Pact at Risk Can biotechnology be used to enhance the sustainability of our farms? Dont ,Research paper raises questions over impact of beleaguered Scottish .BIO Urges Renewal Of Therapeutic Discovery Project To Accelerate Can biotechnology be used to enhance the sustainability of our farms? Dont ,Research paper raises questions over impact of beleaguered Scottish .BIO Urges Renewal Of Therapeutic Discovery Project To Accelerate Can biotechnology be used to enhance the sustainability of our farms? Dont ,Research paper raises questions over impact of beleaguered Scottish .BIO Urges Renewal Of Therapeutic Discovery Project To Accelerate

Thursday, October 7, 2010

The Biotechnology Pride now in the Savannah By Tanya Narahari

Yes, it is time these cubs terminated a career hunting beetles and returned to their roots. The primary food chain has just reached an ideal ecological statistic to permit reunion of the nation's staggering population of Biotechnologists (as engineers) with their Pride of yore.

And it's not just about portly and brassy old opportunity; it's the choice in the face of opportunity's reclusive habits when it comes to Biotechnology. Most of us this year have been loyal in our choices, thus far. Some of us, for instance have declined generous 'job' offers, knowing that all that glitters is not Biotechnology! And while this may be a well-proven fact for the countless other disciplines of the glittering kind, it certainly is a matter noteworthy in our case.

In the course of four years, (the first being fraught with ridicule at belonging in 'Biotech' and concomitant identity crises in an engineering college) we are probably the only department that studies every subject under the blue sky: progeny, ancestors and even remote cousins of Biotechnology in warm familial bonding.

While this condition is aptly described by the title that we presently bear as 'Jacks of all Trades (and the remaining is unmentionable)', we have finally seen the light at the end of the tunnel, because being Jacks of all trades is indeed a blessing.

Need I elucidate? We know where to go next for fresh hunting ground. Whilst this statement might inspire a vociferous resistance from most of you, think again. Here is the meat:

Biotechnology spans several disciplines including food technology, agriculture, medicine and environmental conservation. No graduate of this field may be tagged a 'biotechnologist' and seek work in the 'biotechnology industry' but must keep her eyes peeled and ears perked for pockets of opportunity in these sub-disciplines. Alongside the listings a four-year engineering course offers a scoop of each for a student to pick for further education or for a career start in the industry.

If the devil's advocate were to interject at this point, he might say the wind is blowing every which way. Would our cubs then lose themselves as they gambol in it? The defense lays in this: that direction is gleaned from experience and for many the four years of engineering are quite prophetic. Just as in any other field, channels open up as you move on and get more centered on your specific area of interest.

A student may be proffered some guidance by periodicals that talk of the industry, new products and new firms. Doing short-term internships and projects in the industry also ups the odds of being absorbed into these firms. While this may be a universal engineering paradigm, it does affect the prospects of a biotechnology graduate like no other.

India in itself is a nexus of multiple fields, and products of valuable service might be easier to take to her rustic backyard.

This is evidenced by the fact that our government, namely DBT, New Delhi, and several sub committees offer industrial training programs and richly funded research projects that can give us better reach, and make resumes tastier to the recruiter.

While the downside is that the paycheck is just medium-small in the beginning, it grows with you, and growth in this industry is quick and respectable. If one is working in the Biomedical field, for instance, in the private sector like I am, and developing a diagnostic device that could hit the market in the next two years or so, not only has one the satisfaction of having created a high impact product but also of having done something original and of service to humanity. And it doesn't end there!

The Savannah is wide open.

Sunday, August 8, 2010

What is an Aircraft Carrier By David Bunch

An aircraft carrier is a warship capable of landing and launching planes, and equipped to service these planes and their crews. The planes take off from and land on a floating runway, or flight deck, that causes the ship to be called a "flattop." It is this flight deck that makes the ship an aircraft carrier. The United States Navy was the pioneer in the creation of the aircraft carrier. The first time an airplane ever took off from a warship was on November 14, 1910, when a plane of the United States Navy took off from a platform on the bow of the cruiser Birmingham. On January 18, 1911, the battleship Pennsylvania built on its stern a platform so large that it was able not only to launch a plane but also to land one.

In 1922, the United States built its first warship exclusively for the purpose of carrying and flying aircraft-the first real air¬craft carrier, in basic design not much different from the aircraft carriers of today. It was the United States Ship Langley. By 1944 the aircraft carrier had be¬come the first-line ship of every navy, for both offensive and defensive purposes. The Navy had been reorganized around the carrier. After five hundred years and more, the battleship was no longer the most important warship of the fleet.

In 1952, there were four general classes of aircraft carrier in operation, and two new carriers of a super-class were being built. Of the aircraft carriers already afloat, the classes were: CVBs, the largest class, such as the Midway and the Franklin Delano Roosevelt. These have a displacement of about 60,000 tons, or about the same as a large battleship. The flight deck is about 900 feet long and 113 feet wide. The top speed is 34 knots. CVs, the next largest class, such as the Boxer and the Valley Forge. These have a displacement of about 40,000 tons, and are almost as long as the largest carriers, but the flight deck is narrower, about 800 feet by 93 feet. The speed is about the same, 34 knots. The CVLs, with a flight deck 620 feet by 76 feet, a speed of about 33 knots, and a displacement of 10,000 to 15,000 tons. The CVEs, the smallest of the carriers, known as the "jeep" carriers.

David is the author of many articles including Best Friend Quotes and also the author of Best life quotes.

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2,About Biotechnology
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4,Conferences Worldwide
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10,Biotechnology Business
11,Biotechnology Companies
12,Biological Substances
13,Biotechnology Holds
14,Biotechnology Overview
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18,Cougar Biotechnology
19,Biotechnology Revolution
20,Conferences Conventions
21,Dupont Biotechnology

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Extreme Green House Effect - Oranthropogenic By Dane Bergen Platinum Quality Author

Green house effect is a process by which radioactive energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases called green house gases. This energy is transferred to other components of the atmosphere and is also radiated backwards. The mechanism of this effect is that the warmth is isolated inside the structure so that the heat is not lost. Green effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824. Global warming is the result of green house effect due to excessive emission of green house gases. This is also caused due to human produced increases in atmospheric green house gases.

The principle mechanism can be explained as follows. The earth receives energy from sun in the form of sunlight. Light is absorbed by earth's surface and re-radiated. The heat that is retained in earth's surface and lower atmosphere increases the temperature and results in global warming.

The four major green house gases are:

1. Water vapor

2. Carbon dioxide

3. Methane

4. Ozone

Strengthening of this condition through human activities is known as oranthropogenic. This increases carbon dioxide level in atmosphere and adversely affects the living things. Besides earth, Mars, Venus and the moon namely Titan exhibits effect. Global warming has been a threat since many years. Deforestation is one of the main causes as it increases amount of carbon dioxide level in atmosphere.

Even though people are aware of this phenomenon, there are plenty of them who act as though they are not aware of the depleting atmosphere of the earth. Thus they get involved into those practices which can certainly disturb the atmospheric balance. Some of the deeds include polluting the air, water and other resources, deforestation, using electronic good known to cause harm to our peaceful environment and so on. Therefore, it is very important to make the society aware about the bad effects and save our earth as well as ourselves.

If you're considering adding a solar panel to your home, to dramatically lower your electricity bill, then check out my video's on how I made my own solar panel for only few hundred dollars!

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com

Biogas Digesters Are Becoming Useful For Fuel By Chuck Cox

Biogas is a gas that is created whenever animal and plant wastes degrade. Bacteria ferment the waste under anaerobic, or oxygen-free, conditions. The result of this fermentation includes carbon dioxide and methane.

Methane is created in landfills, where the buried waste rots and produces this gas. Often, methane is permitted to escape into the atmosphere. However, it can easily be collected and piped to local industries where it could be available for burning to release heat along with other energy options.

Biogas could also be produced under more controlled conditions in pits in the ground or in tanks called biogas digesters. All types of human and animal waste can be put into these digesters. The rotting mass releases gases, such as methane, that can be piped away and burned as a fuel for heating and cooking.

This exciting energy source is becoming a major fuel source in many developing countries, where practically all rural families or villages can make use of a biogas digester to generate fuel. Biogas digesters are used on farms to dispose of animal wastes. The gas can be further used to power a generator to produce electricity. The intensive farming that is found in Denmark and the Netherlands generates large amounts of animal waste, which needs careful disposal. It is fermented in digesters to produce biogas, while the residue is used as crop fertilizer.

Elsewhere, household wastes, livestock waste, and poultry waste are burned in specially modified power stations, rather than used to make biogas. These power stations have to meet strict emission controls to prevent the release of toxic chemicals.

Of course, one additional benefit of burning off the methane from these waster sources is that it will help reduce greenhouse gases significantly.

Have you been investigating new sources of renewable energy for your home? Check out you options here:

Home Solar Power

You most likely have far more choices than you think. For instance, you may want to look at wind power, hydro-energy sources, or even geothermal energy. Read more at:

Renewable Energy Info

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Saturday, July 3, 2010

Biotechnology - Fast Emerging Sector of India By Kamal Poria

Biotechnology is considered to be a quickly emerging and far-reaching technology. It's a branch of science that may play a major role in the development and growth of India. Biotechnology refers to any technological application that uses biological systems and forms in a governable manner, to not only produce new and useful processes or products but also modify the existing ones. It benefits both mankind and other life forms, such as microorganisms. Besides, biotechnology helps maintain an optimum ecological balance by lowering the amount of hydrocarbons and controlling pollution.
Biotechnology in India is one of the most rapidly growing knowledge-based sectors. Today, it's being increasingly used to design and develop unique, improved varieties of pharmaceutical products, crops, fertilizers, processed foods, a plethora of chemicals, cosmetics, growth enhancers, health care aids, and environment-related substances. The biotech segment in India has been making fast strides on the world platform. India is currently producing and marketing many therapeutic biotech drugs and vaccines. From 2005-2006, the Indian biotech sector recorded an impressive revenue of approximately US$ 1.07 billion and registered a 36.55% growth.
India has diverse biological resources. Biotechnology offers opportunities to convert these resources into employment opportunities and economic wealth. Several factors create an impetus for India to produce excellent capabilities in the domain of biotechnology. These factors include a strong pool of scientists and engineers, a large reservoir of scientific human resources, affordable manufacturing capabilities, numerous medical colleges, educational and training institutes providing diplomas and degrees in biotechnology, a large number of national research laboratories engaging thousands of scientists, fast developing clinical capabilities, and a vibrant drugs and pharmaceutical industry.
The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) in India is regulated by the Ministry of Science and Technology and is a top authority responsible for the development of the biotech industry. This department is responsible for planning, promoting, and organizing different biotechnological activities and programs in India. It also offers grants to universities, national research laboratories, and research foundations associated with biotechnology-related activities.
The key responsibilities of the DBT include:
1. Promoting large-scale use of biotechnology
2. Acting as a government agent for importing fresh recombinant DNA-based biotechnological processes, technologies, and products
3. Building infrastructure facilities to aid R&D and production
4. Initiating technical and scientific efforts associated with biotechnology
5. Promoting international collaborations to expound the knowledge base of the biotech sector in India
6. Providing bio-safety guidelines for laboratory research, applications, and production
7. Serving as a nodal agency for collecting and disseminating biotechnology-related information
Furthermore, the Indian government has set up the National Bio-Resource Development Board (NBDB) under the department to determine the broad-policy framework for efficient use of biotechnological research and development.
The key functions of this board include:
1. Promoting how bio-resources add value and strengthening bioinformatics
2. Formulating predictive groupings of biological resources via well-developed molecular lineages
3. Providing efficient conservation strategies for bio-resources with potential economic and scientific value
4. Promoting the application of biological software in pathogens' and agricultural pests' management
5. Training and teaching human resources towards achieving all these objectives
The Indian government is also establishing many biotech parks and incubators. Some existing biotech parks/incubation centers are in Uttar Pradesh, Hyderabad, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, and Bangalore.
With so many measures being adopted to promote biotechnology, the Indian biotech sector is set to flourish, and it can revolutionize agriculture, industrial processing, health care, and environmental sustainability.
The government of India has taken several initiatives to attract foreign investments in India. Not only foreign establishments but also entrepreneurs from India can reap the benefits of the growing Indian Market.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Kamal_Poria

Anatomy 101 - The Human Body From a Kid's Point of View By Adam Singleton

The human body is something you'd think would be a natural object of understanding for humans, but not a huge number of people can boast knowledge of everything concerning these temples within which we live. Explaining it to children can prove difficult too - so what sort of things can you do to help your descriptions when those inevitable questions come along?
Children can be a lot smarter than we sometimes imagine. Many kids go through childhood experiencing various 'obsessions', where they find an interest and research it thoroughly; learning all there is to know about the subject. Take dinosaurs for example, which are always a popular interest. Most of us can probably think of at least one child who's been through the phase of reading up all about the giant lizards, collecting toys, watching the TV programmes, etc - if it's not us ourselves. This natural enthusiasm for learning is something that should be kept in mind - children, and humans in general, are inquisitive beings that thirst for knowledge. So it's important to latch onto this early and ensure kids get the most out of that early enthusiasm.
There are plenty of ways to encourage learning, such as books, DVDs, computer software and even plain old conversation. Children ask 'why?' a lot when growing up - and so do adults, albeit most of us do it quietly these days - and parents and teachers should capitalise on this inclination by telling them why, or how, or even what. What's more is that you'll probably get to enjoy it too.
A lot of the ways that kids learn stuff are usually fun. The books they read, the films they watch and even educational cartoons are designed to be amusing as well as instructive. This can make a welcome change from the slightly more stoic way of learning that grown-ups are used to, revisiting the basics in a bright and colourful manner that can prove entertaining as well. Opening up a book to help you teach your child about the human body can be a fun experience since children's literature is more about getting information across in an entertaining fashion rather than what comes across as quite inaccessible and stuffy by comparison in later years.
On top of all this, you spend time with the child, helping them to develop better social abilities whilst strengthening your own bond.
So what is there on the topic of the human body in particular? Depending on how old the child is, you could teach with anything ranging from rousing renditions of "head, shoulders, knees and toes" and the "hokey cokey" to question-and-answer sessions or reading books, watching television programmes and DVDs or using interactive CD ROMs or the internet.
There's a wealth of information out there concerning the human body, from your own personal knowledge to human body books - so don't feel restricted in what you can pass on as there's plenty of inspiration out there.
Adam Singleton writes for a digital marketing agency. This article has been commissioned by a client of said agency. This article is not designed to promote, but should be considered professional content.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Adam_Singleton

Monday, June 28, 2010

DIY Solar Panel Kits By Alice V. Deloney

The economic depression that the economy is experiencing globally nowadays makes it very important to obtain DIY solar panel kits to save more money.
There are countless sources of directions on building your own solar powered generator at home that can be accessed online, but we still need to be careful in choosing which is more efficient and if it really understands the concept behind how the machine really works.
If what we really want is to have our own solar panel at home so that we could produce our own energy, we should first learn and understand the basics and theories on how solar panels are set up and used and how it really works.
When an energy or electricity is made by heat or motion, it runs through the wires into our homes, the energy created runs units that are currently operated when the circuits are open.
For appliances entailing the use of electricity to work properly, the flow of energy should be kept constant because electricity degrades with respect to time.
The prerequisite that I mentioned above is easier done by using a solar powered generator because it runs with use of solar panels and stores unused energy by the use of a battery but you also need to be careful in choosing the right battery size for all your electrical appliances to be accommodated with the source of electricity.
Studying and having the specialization in the field of electricity is not really a requirement when you desire to build your own generator at home because the parts that are required in building the machine can be found in and even around the house and can be very inexpensive to purchase on hardware stores.
Solar power is another source of energy which can be gathered from the sun and it can be built at home but it works entirely different from usual electrical generators because the energy generated through motion makes the amount of power generated directly related to the number of loops which encircle the central wheel of the axle and also depends on the speed of the turning of the wheel.
To always make sure that you are doing everything right in trying to correctly follow instructions on DIY solar panel kits and for ensuring that you are making an output that is maximum and at the same time very efficient, you need to follow instructions perfectly to also avoid short circuits from happening and destroying your generator.
There are many things to do in order to save energy.I am glad to read the post on DIY solar panel kits.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Alice_V._Deloney

Save Money With Renewable Energy Biogas By Dane Bergen

Renewable energy biogas is a fuel mixture that can be made from biomass and contains methane and carbon dioxide; it has sixty five percent of the former and thirty five percent of the latter. Biogas is usually prepared by anaerobic fermentation using bacteria which can degrade organic substances to form this fuel gas.
Many people have now turned to using renewable energy biogas as it is highly economical and also safe for the environment. In addition, it also helps to decrease organic waste load that is otherwise dumped and left to degrade on its own. By preparing this fuel gas, we help to reduce this load efficiently without polluting the environment.
Another advantage of renewable energy biogas is that it can be created using minimal investment even in the backyard of your home. The digested sludge that is given out as a waste product is very useful as manure for agronomic purposes and thus helps to grow produce in an organic manner. Since biogas can be used for all home needs, it cuts down on the use of LPG and thus on the consumption of fossil fuels.
The manure that is formed this way has fewer odors and can be easily assimilated by plants; there is also the added advantage that using this fertilizer can reduce the risk of disease causing organisms affecting the plants which is good both for the economy as well as health of the society. This also helps to keep out other insects near the storage pit thus maintaining the area neat and tidy.
There is very little money involved in building an apparatus for making renewable energy biogas. Invest in this today itself and create free fuel for all your household needs from the organic wastes that gets accumulated at home.
If you're considering adding a solar panel to your home, to dramatically lower your electricity bill, then check out my video's on how I made my own solar panel for only few hundred dollars!
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Dane_Bergen

Friday, June 25, 2010

How to Go Green With Your Coffee By Mike Crimmins

Earlier this year, the day marked Earth Day on the calendars turned forty. You'd think that after that many years, things would be starting to look a lot greener. However, it's no secret that the earth is taking some pretty hard hits right now. And coffee drinkers, we're part of the problem. Our precious coffee is causing forests to be knocked down at an alarming rate to make room for coffee trees and closer to home our land and water if littered with coffee cups.
There's no easy answer, but there's ways for us to go from causing more problems to being part of the solution.
Next time you go shopping, take a look at the labels on the coffee there. Organic and shade grown are just two of the many earth friendly labels out there. Organic coffees are grown and processed without harsh chemicals and shade grown coffee preserves the habitats for migratory birds. And don't forget to buy local so your morning coffee has less of a carbon foot print.
Billions of paper and Styrofoam cups are used once then thrown out. They're filling up our landfills, polluting our lakes and covering land. The answer is simple, start using a travel mug.
Unplug your coffee maker and cut your electric bill with a French Press or Aerobie Aeropress. The only power needed is to the heat the water. The French Press doesn't even require a single use paper filter that you would have to throw out after your done. The Aeropress only needs a filter that's less than the size of a silver dollar. Either way, you're getting great tasting coffee.
If you are set on using your traditional drip coffee maker, use coffee filters made out of recycled paper or better yet get a permanent reusable filter. Do you have a Keurig or other single serve machine? Have you checked out the reusable K-Cup? It allows you to use your own coffee and not throw out a plastic k-cup every time. Win/win.
After you're all done, don't throw the coffee grounds in the trash. Instead put them in your compost pile. If you don't have one, what are you waiting for? Start one today or give them to a neighbor that does have one in their backyard.
That's just a few easy ways to go green with your coffee, but that's just the beginning. There's so many ways that you can help nurture our earth.
Mike Crimmins is a coffee fanatic. He's not your traditional coffee expert or barista. He's just your average joe, looking for that perfect cup of coffee. You can learn more about coffee at his blog http://dailyshotofcoffee.com/ and visit http://shop.dailyshotofcoffee.com/.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Mike_Crimmins

Biotechnology Investment Opportunities in New Zealand By Alex Wyne

New-Zealand's bio-tech industry is flourishing and the government is dedicated to speeding up the development of this knowledge based industry. The opportunities for investors will continue to grow as a result of the government taking a series of positive steps to promote the growth. It has established a US$40 m venture investment fund specifically for the development of bio-tech sectors.
Biotechnology has been recognized by the NZ Government as a sector with the potential to make substantial contributions to social well being and economic growth of the country. Hence, it has been included in the Growth and Innovation Framework. The NZ government's Biotechnology Strategy was released in 2003. The primary objectives of the strategy involve promoting growth of the sector to raise economic and community welfare. It also focuses on the regulations that offer robust safeguards without obstructing innovation.
In current times, most of the biotechnology research and related business is concentrated on health and well being related applications and knowledge. The NZ government has applied no restrictions on the percentage of equity a foreign investor can have in biotechnology ventures. This sector is poised for high growth due to many reasons. Biology based industries account for 60% of gross national product. Biotechnology industries in NZ have become world leaders due to investments in genetic management, process development and land management. This past foundation of scientific achievement gives the current investor a competitive edge in biotechnology projects.
Biotechnology Industry has a legacy in NZ as the country mainly depended on commercial exports of bio tech products. NZ has a unparalleled environment which is supported by rich natural resources. This has invariably supplied the building blocks of world-class biological science. The development has been cemented by the fact that successive governments have supported the increased investment and development of biological research. Currently the primary focus is concentrated on research areas to develop medium term commercial applications in biological sciences. The government has many ranges of grants that can be availed by local and international organizations.
The royal commission of inquiry has mentioned in its report that genetic modification and its application need to be supported and NZ stands to miss huge opportunities if it fails to do so. This provides enough evidence that potential investment in biotech industries will be welcomed and supported in NZ.
Setting up a biotech industry in NZ has many advantages.
• It has a good supply of animal obtained biological materials
• Good supply of marine derived natural products
• A prominent source of raw materials for human and animal pharmaceutical products.
• Manufacture of wide range of blood based products such as antibodies and proteins.
The cost of biotechnology research and development facilities in NZ is 40% to 50% less than Europe and USA. Thus, this serves to be a great advantage for foreign investors who are looking for cost efficient research and development. The cost structure of clinical studies in New Zealand is also quite attractive. Companies can collaborate with New Zealand research groups that have strong foundations and brief history in the biological science field. Affordable access to bio-prospecting facilities, pure raw materials and NZ unique flora are some of the distinct advantages offered by NZ to foreign investors looking to invest in biotechnology projects.
Biotechnology investment in New Zealand
Investinnz.co.nz is provide details information of Investment opportunities, Events, Expos, Conferences and Magazine on investment in NZ for those who have interest to invest in New Zealand.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Alex_Wyne

Traditional and Modern Food Biotechnology By George Royal

With the increase in the global demand for food and food products, scientists all over the world have been probing the possibility of finding a way to increase crop yields, enhance and improve the nutritional value and taste, while protecting the environment by reducing the use of chemicals such as pesticides. This is where biotechnology comes into the picture by providing the required technology to achieve those.
Traditional and Modern Food Biotechnology:
Food biotechnology is not a new concept. It had already been used long before the term itself was coined. For centuries, man has been exploiting biology to make food products such as bread, beer, wine, and cheese. For example, man had already learnt the method of fermenting fruit juices to concoct alcoholic beverages during the period around 6000 BC. Traditionally, the most common form of food biotechnology is the process in which seeds from the highest yielding and best tasting corn are grown each year, resulting in the better yield year after year.
The process of obtaining the best traits in food products became much easier with the introduction of "genetic engineering" and "gene cloning" in modern food biotechnology about two decades ago. Now, by transferring and altering genes, scientists can remove certain genetic characteristics from units and move it into the genetic code of another, to make them more resistant to diseases, richer in vitamins and minerals, etc. Food biotechnology has also made plant breeding safer since single genes can now be transferred without moving thousands, making it possible to identify those defective genes or their proteins which may be harmful or toxic.
In the United States and many parts of the world, crops and food products such as soybeans, corn, cotton, canola, papaya, and squash produced through biotechnology have become significant components of the people's diet.
What are the Benefits?
Nutrition: Foods that are genetically engineered or produced through food biotechnology are more nutritious because they tend to contain more vitamin and minerals since they are made from a combination of select traits that are considered to be the best.
Safety: Foods from biotechnology are much safer because the possibility of toxin content is almost minimal in comparison to those grown traditionally. This is because any gene containing toxin or suspected to be toxic is removed during transferring and altering of genes.
Better Yield: Food biotechnology seems to increase crop yields by introducing food crops that are more resistant to harsh climates, decreasing the amount of diseased units, and improving the productivity of a particular crop etc. This becomes very practical considering the amount of food in demand, and consumed globally.
Reducing the need for chemical insecticides: Food biotechnology also opens the possibility of producing crops that are naturally or self-resistant to diseases and pests. For example, the gene for a bacterial protein which kills insect pests has successfully been introduced into a range of crops, reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Pest-protected crops also allow for less potential exposure of farmers and groundwater to chemical residues.
Biotechnology HQ http://biotechnology-hq.com/ articles and information about the science of biotechnology.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=George_Royal

Monday, June 21, 2010

Offshore Oil Drilling Rigs Actually Safe? Get the Facts Now By Oneil Wilson Platinum Quality Author

The question of the day seems to be, are the offshore oil drilling rigs actually safe. The answer would be a resounding... no.. well.. maybe. This week a spill that is expected to reach proportions that out-spill the Exxon Valdez is affecting an area already sensitive. Marine mammals, fish, wildlife and even some shore areas are being affected, along with industry and tourism.
Is Offshore drilling really safe? At the moment if you ask any of the people who may be affected by it, they'd have to admit that they don't believe that it is. If you were to ask our President today, I wonder if his answer has changed from the affirmative one he gave in the early part of April.
Whatever the reason for the explosion that caused the massive and still uncontrolled spill, that particular episode of offshore drilling wasn't safe. In retrospect, while everyone was asking the question, "is offshore drilling safe?", they were not addressing the real issue. The question of whether or not off shore oil drilling is safe is a moot point. It wasn't safe this time.
The question at hand should not have been, "Is this technology safe?", but instead, "Do we have the technology to fix what we damage if it is not?" That answer is obviously a resounding no.
It may be the safest and most wholesome technology available, but regardless of that fact, sometimes, even the most safe technology goes awry.
In light of the current efforts to clean up what is clearly an ecological disaster of devastating proportions, what difference does the question of whether or not the offshore drilling is safe really make? This time, it wasn't safe, and now we deal with the aftermath.
O'Neil is a eager internet newbie in the art of writing articles. His newest interest is in girl games. So come visit his recommended where you can play girl games. You can venture it his most popular section of games, Y8 Dress Up.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Oneil_Wilson

Inspired by Dave Courchene By Neal Ryder

I just came across something we all can do that resonates so strongly with me.
"Get a bottle of clean water, hold it close to your hearts and offer a prayer. Through the Water, send a message of love and gratitude to the Earth, and to all water of the Earth that has been affected and contaminated. Send your love to the Water and to Mother Earth.
This strong love of Spirit that you will put into the Water will give strength to Mother Earth.
Go to your nearest body of Water - a creek, a stream, a river, a waterfall, lake or ocean, and pour your Water that you have blessed with your prayer of gratitude. It will be your spirit of love to the Earth that offers our best chance of survival."
From Dave Courchene of the Turtle Lodge
What if we include a vision that folds in nicely with this inspired call to action. Perhaps it will resonate with you as it does with me.
What if we blessed water monthly? Weekly? Daily? Quarterly? With the cycles of the moon? Whatever type of commitment makes sense to the individual. Across the planet those participating would be contributing individually but as a whole there would be a consistency of intention.
While not everyone lives near water, the intention of gratitude transcend physical limitations. This could be done wherever you live; city, plains, mountains, desert. The planet is a whole - water, oxygen, atmosphere, ice, land, plants, animals and human all are part of Planet Earth.
We can bless and pour the water on the land or in water. Be where you are, be with the intention of blessing. That blessing would be carried to the atmosphere as the water evaporates or would blend with water. That blessing could then be part of the rain as it falls to bless the planet, people, plants and animals. We might then absorb that blessing as we drink the water - same with the animals and plants. A cycle of blessing might be created. Our blessings would travel to all ecosystems carried by the winds that promote the general circulation of air on the planet.
Singular group actions carry weight. Consistency of action produces change. Consider it. Don't get caught by a belief in victimhood - which suggests we have no choice. We do. We can make a difference - link choice, intention and action. Our blessings can affect all of life in ways we can't imagine.
If you don't remember to do it every day, do it a few times a week, or weekly. It's about people sharing a common intention. If this resonates, simply make an effort and do the best you can. Collectively it makes a difference.
Neal is a gifted intuitive healer, inspirational author and global teacher who has dedicated his life and training to bringing forth the Divine Radiance in people - not in concept but as a state of being - which infuses his clients with healing, wholeness and celebration.
Neal offers a wealth of information through his blog, newsletter, articles, workshops, intensives, expansive programs and internet radio shows all drawn from the core content in his book, Living a Radiant Life: A Compassionate Compass To Unity and Wholeness.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Neal_Ryder

Biogas Upgrading Technology - Cleaning Raw Biogas Into Usable Natural Gas By Richard Belcher

Digester systems that convert waste material into biogas are becoming more prevalent throughout the world. Rural farmers now have a means to produce good quality fertilizer and biogas from waste materials like manure in a cheap renewable way.
The problem is that this biogas produced is roughly 60% methane and 29% Co2 with trace elements of H2S, and is not up to the quality of 99% pure methane natural gas if the owner was planning on selling this gas or using it as fuel gas for machinery. The corrosive nature of H2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of expensive plant.
The solution is the implementation of a biogas upgrading or purification system. Biogas upgrading is a series of processes where the gas is first cleaned from contaminants and then dried, so that what is left at the end of the process is 98%+ methane fuel gas. Manufacturers that produce biogas purification systems each have their own different processes and technology that they employ to produce the sales quality gas. A few of them are detailed below.
Water Washing
This is the most common method of purifying biogas. Here raw biogas from the digester is compressed and fed into the scrubber vessel where passing water streams adsorb the gas contaminants leaving near pure methane. The gas is then dried by dessicant in the drier columns and exit the system as 98%+ pure natural gas.
Pressure Swing Adsorption
Otherwise known as PSA, this purification method separates the Co2, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Water from the raw biogas stream by adsorbing gases at high pressure and desorbing them at low pressure as waste. The PSA system usually consists of 4 different adsorption columns working in sequence; Adsorption, depressurizing, desorption and repressurizing.
The raw biogas is compressed and fed into the bottom of the adsorption column where it is purified. during this time the remaining columns regenerate, such that there is always 1 absorber column actively cleaning gas. PSA does not scrub hydrogen sulphide so this most be removed before it enters the compressor.
Polyglycol
Using polyglycol (Tradename Selexol)to purify biogas is similar to the water washing method with regeneration. Selexol can adsorb hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and water. However the energy required to regenerate the solution after adsorbing H2S is high, so hydrogen sulphide is removed before the process.
Chemical Reaction
Raw biogas can be upgraded by various chemical reactions that remove the C02 and other contaminants from the gas stream. The chemicals such as Alkanolamines react at atmospheric pressure in an adsorption column with the Co2 and are regenerated afterwards with steam. The hydrogen sulphide must first be removed to avoid toxifying the chemicals.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Each plant type fulfills its purpose of supplying high quality natural gas for grid injection. However depending on the site location, various environmental and economic factors might make selecting a certain type of system a more sensible choice. For areas where water is an expensive resource a more appropriate choice would be a PSA or Selexol system which regenerate the adsorbent, however this has to be offset against the heat input required in regeneration.
Another important factor to consider is the methane loss associated with each design. The methane loss is measured using gas analyzers and flowmeters at the suction and discharge sides of the plant. Most plants are guaranteed by manufacturers to achieve a maximum 2% methane loss. Some recent studies however have measured between 8-10% methane loss at PSA and Selexol plant sites, possibly due to leaks and poor maintenance. Chemical systems have even lower guaranteed losses since the chemicals selectively react with the Co2 in the gas stream instead of adsorbing.
Energy Demands
For a biogas upgrading plant the auxiliary power required to drive the compressors, pumps etc is anywhere between 3-6% of the total energy output in the form of natural gas. The cost associated with upgrading biogas also decreases with larger plant size, a smallish plant of 100 metres cubed per hour will upgrade gas at more than twice the cost of a plant outputting 200 - 300 metres cubed per hour.
Conclusions
A Digestor is only the beginning of the process to convert biomass into useful high quality natural gas. A biogas purification system takes the raw biogas at around 60% methane from the digester and through a special process outputs 98% methane for ether use as fuel gas or supplied to the grid. The four main upgrading processes are water washing, pressure swing adsorption, polyglycol adsorption and chemical treatment. Water washing and PSA are the most predominantly used systems in the world today. Typical energy requirements for a biogas purification system are between 3-6% of the total methane output, with smaller plants cost more to run than larger ones. As digester systems become more common around the world and people begin to catch on to biogas as a renewable source of energy, no doubt we will see more of these systems become available and more innovative designs.
methane-digester.net/biogas-upgrading-systems/
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Richard_Belcher

Traditional and Modern Food Biotechnology By George Royal

With the increase in the global demand for food and food products, scientists all over the world have been probing the possibility of finding a way to increase crop yields, enhance and improve the nutritional value and taste, while protecting the environment by reducing the use of chemicals such as pesticides. This is where biotechnology comes into the picture by providing the required technology to achieve those.
Traditional and Modern Food Biotechnology:
Food biotechnology is not a new concept. It had already been used long before the term itself was coined. For centuries, man has been exploiting biology to make food products such as bread, beer, wine, and cheese. For example, man had already learnt the method of fermenting fruit juices to concoct alcoholic beverages during the period around 6000 BC. Traditionally, the most common form of food biotechnology is the process in which seeds from the highest yielding and best tasting corn are grown each year, resulting in the better yield year after year.
The process of obtaining the best traits in food products became much easier with the introduction of "genetic engineering" and "gene cloning" in modern food biotechnology about two decades ago. Now, by transferring and altering genes, scientists can remove certain genetic characteristics from units and move it into the genetic code of another, to make them more resistant to diseases, richer in vitamins and minerals, etc. Food biotechnology has also made plant breeding safer since single genes can now be transferred without moving thousands, making it possible to identify those defective genes or their proteins which may be harmful or toxic.
In the United States and many parts of the world, crops and food products such as soybeans, corn, cotton, canola, papaya, and squash produced through biotechnology have become significant components of the people's diet.
What are the Benefits?
Nutrition: Foods that are genetically engineered or produced through food biotechnology are more nutritious because they tend to contain more vitamin and minerals since they are made from a combination of select traits that are considered to be the best.
Safety: Foods from biotechnology are much safer because the possibility of toxin content is almost minimal in comparison to those grown traditionally. This is because any gene containing toxin or suspected to be toxic is removed during transferring and altering of genes.
Better Yield: Food biotechnology seems to increase crop yields by introducing food crops that are more resistant to harsh climates, decreasing the amount of diseased units, and improving the productivity of a particular crop etc. This becomes very practical considering the amount of food in demand, and consumed globally.
Reducing the need for chemical insecticides: Food biotechnology also opens the possibility of producing crops that are naturally or self-resistant to diseases and pests. For example, the gene for a bacterial protein which kills insect pests has successfully been introduced into a range of crops, reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Pest-protected crops also allow for less potential exposure of farmers and groundwater to chemical residues.
Biotechnology HQ http://biotechnology-hq.com/ articles and information about the science of biotechnology.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=George_Royal

Triplet Genetic Code - A Book Review Which Allows the Reader to Better Understand DNA Nutrition By Chris Bielke

This book presents the basics of what the genetic code is, so that the reader can have a basis of understanding of molecular biology. The backbone of the book is the central dogma of molecular biology, which is the idea that information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. It not only defines and discusses what the genetic code is, but discusses the rules of the genetic code and the type of mutations that can occur in the system.
The basic building blocks of both DNA and mRNA are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. These are defined as nitrogen bases and are usually labeled A, T, G, and C. These bases code for twenty specific amino acids. The twenty amino acids that can be created are as follows: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamine, glutamate, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, praline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. A nucleotide is defined as a linked bunch of molecules, composed of a phosphate group, nitrogenous bases, and a pentose sugar. The nucleotides code for these amino acids in groups of three, giving 64 possible combinations. The groups of threes are called codons. There are actually three codons that don't code for amino acids. These codons are called stop codons and they signal signal translation termination. These codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA.
The genetic code is said to be degenerate. This means that the code doesn't code to its capacity. Basically, the twenty known amino acids that can be created by the genetic code can be made by more than one type of nucleotide sequence. For instance, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG all code for the amino acid leucine. Another example is that CGU, CGC, CGA, and CGG all code for arginine.
According to the book, there are three main rules for the genetic code. The first rule is that the sequence of nitrogenous bases must follow the direction of translation. mRNA is translated in the 5' to 3' direction, so the codon sequences have to occur in the same orientation. This ensures that they will be properly translated. The first base of a codon must be located at the 5'-most end of the codon. For instance, the following three bases code for the amino acid cysteine: CGU. Two codons code for this amino acid, 5'-UGU-3' and 5'-UGC-3'. 5'-UGC-3' matches the codon CGU if you read it backwards.
The second rule is that one nucleotide can be used per reading frame. In other words, one nucleotide can only be part of one codon. For example, the code AATT could be read only as AAT or ATT, but not at the same time.
The last rule deals with start and stop codons. Basically, once you begin reading a codon from a specific nucleotide, one must continue reading it by threes until the end. The most common start codon is AUG. UAA, UAG, or UGA are the stop codons. So, the implication of this rule is that any sequence can be read in three different ways, depending on which nucleotide is put first. The three different ways of reading can yield three different amino acids.
Mutations are errors in codons caused by changes in nucleotide bases. Depending on the type of mutation, the error can cause no change or devastating change in protein created. These changes can result in positive phenotypic changes in the living organism, but usually are deleterious. The first type of mutation discussed is the base substitution. This is when one base is substituted for another. There are three main base substitutions: silent mutations, missense mutations, and nonsense mutations. Silent mutations do not change the amino acid created, due to the degeneracy of the genetic code. For example, if UGU is changed to UGC, the corresponding amino acid will still be cysteine. A missense mutation results in a substitution that changes the actual amino acid that is created by the codon. A nonsense mutation is a substitution that actually transforms the codon into a stop codon. This is generally considered to be the worst sort of base substitution mutation because it can really mess up the formation of a protein.
The next category of mutations is the insertion and deletion mutations. The main mutation that correlates to the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a codon is the frameshift mutation. This mutation is very profound in its effects, due to it changing every codon in a genetic sequence. It messes up the three codon structure which constitutes code, thus altering the protein that is created by the code.
The last category of mutations are the suppressor mutations. Supressor mutations change the result of an entirely different mutation. There are two types of these: extragenic and intragenic mutations. Extragenic mutations occur outside the genetic code, but has an effect on the amino acid sequence that is translated from the genetic code. Basically, one mutation can negate another mutation, due to the affects of a tRNA mutation. An intragenic mutation comes from within the genetic code. An example of this would be if an insertion of a particular nucleotide was negated by a frameshift deletion of this nucleotide. This book does a thorough job of educating the reader in the basic of the genetic code. It not only defines what the genetic code is, what rules govern it, and what mutations can occur in it, but it discusses how the genetic code is an indicator of evolution. Since all life shares the same four nitrogenous bases, which make up the codons that code for the proteins that make all living bodies, evolution from common descent seems plausible.
Written by Chris Bielke
Independent Affiliate GeneWize LifeSciences
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Top 10 Popular Science Books By Casey Rentz

1. Annals of a Former World, by John McPhee
In patient, lyrical prose, McPhee takes the reader on a geologic journey through the United States. This volume was originally published as 4 books; each is centered on a road trip the author took with a geologist, observing the earth next to Eisenhower's great US highways for clues into its geologic past. Annals has this--no borders, idealistic, On the Road for geologists kind of feel (though a bit more grown-up.) I pick up Annals every once in a while when im in a relaxed mood, when im looking for a good example of literary science writing. Highly recommended as a companion for camping trips, if you can fit it into your pack.
2. Surely You're Joking, Mr, Feynman, by Richard Feynman
A string of excerpts from Feynman's life/career, Surely You're Joking is probably the popular science book I have read through the most times, not because it is short, but because it is at once compelling, understated, and full of indispensible scientific concepts. Richard Feynman has an uncanny ability to make physics easily digestible, his lectures are a testament to that and Surely You're Joking is no exception. Feynman's easy prose makes the reader feel like physics is understandable, as if he has laid out a diagram of the universe on his living room floor--no one is an outsider. It's delightful. Feynman's in my 'top 5 people I would give my right pinky finger to meet' category.
3. A Short History of Nearly Everything, by Bill Bryson
The second heavy volume on the list, A Short History is packed with nearly everything. It takes a look at the science behind a lot of things--beauty, cells, evolution, the universe. Bryson rejects the traditional notion of a 'textbook' with this book, making science seem relevant in our daily lives AND putting this knowledge in the context of the universe--in space and time. Capturing the detailed nooks where science is often concentrated AND eliciting the wonder of the wider perspective is an accomplishment--savor it wherever you can find it. Great in audio book format.
4. The Richness of Life, collection of essays by Stephen Jay Gould
The idiosyncratic Gould has written articles in Natural History and many other science magazines for decades and is one of the most widely read modern science writers. In this collection of articles, Gould's highly intellectual, witty, and pin-accurate prose explains evolutionary theory, racism or baseball with a scientist's eye, but in a way that engages the layman. Gould's dedication to science shows in every piece. Delightful.
5. In the Shadow of Man, by Jane Goodall
A classic book--easy read, no jargon. Goodall's observations of chimpanzee's in the wild first brought to light one of man's most recent ancestors--the chimpanzee. This book chronicles some of Goodall's groundbreaking research through her own observations about chimp behavior. Once immersed in the book, I couldn't help but think--we are all just apes, evolved from or related to one another. Puts things in perspective.
6. The Canon, by Natalie Angier
Someone at the New York Times science desk once told me--"Natalie Angier is the queen of metaphor." I have to agree. The Canon is the best example of her witty prose winding the reader through simple scientific questions with difficult answers. In this book, Angier tackles what she has deemed the basic scientific concepts everyone should know: thinking scientifically, probabilities, calibration, physics, evolutionary biology, chemistry, molecular biology, astronomy and geology. Phew. I have to say--this could have been very text-book, but because of her writing style, is masterful. I actually have had many non-scientist friend recommend this to me, which is always a good sign.
7. Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher, by Lewis Thomas
Another collection of essays worth picking up, Thomas' book is a joy. Each essay packs a good amount of philosophy into it's literary package as Thomas meanders through simple topics and concepts in biology and makes larger connections (cells are like mini organisms, social animals work together like parts of a cell, etc.) Thomas often uses themes repetitively in his essays, so this collection is good for sporadic reading.
8. Universe in a Teacup, by K.C. Cole
Where can you find a book that successfully intertwines the discipline of mathematics, with the concepts of truth and beauty? Universe is just such a book; K.C.'s most popular and in some ways seminal volume. Metaphors she uses pack a punch. Her prose style is somewhat poetic, and in Universe, she proves adept at explain things like chaos or phase transitions are illuminating--not just because you finally understand some science concept that always seem so obscure, but because Cole has also given the you a new way to think about mathematics and the world alongside your new understanding. (Full disclosure--Cole was my academic mentor)
9. Enduring Love, by Ian McEwin
Ok, so not everyone would categorize this as a popular science book, but Ill include it anyway. Enduring Love is a fiction book, partially written from the perspective of a former scientist, but more importantly, it is a suspenseful story that lets the author's attitudes towards life bleed through each and every page. Ian McEwan is a well-know rationalist who believes that science is just as much a part of culture as anything else--a position with which I very much empathize. This is a literary tale, sure, but McEwin manages to mention scientific ideas all over the place, integrating science and its ways of thinking into the lives of his complex characters and slowly revealing situations. It's a page-turner.
10. Six Easy Pieces, Six Not-So-Easy Pieces, by Richard Feynman
I tried not to include any author twice, but I couldn't resist. Feynman is fantastic. Check out these books for fundamental lessons of physics.
*Suggested missing authors--Simon Singh, Richard Dawkins
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Biology, Science and Nature Books By Suleman Thadha

Astronomy and Cosmology
Cosmology is the name given to a range of natural sciences, including both physics and astronomy that intends to provide an explanation for how the universe works as an integrated entity. Over the centuries, since the Pythagoreans in Greece during the 6th century BC considered the possibility that Earth was spherical, cosmology has come a long way and has integrated a variety of different fields of science.
Cosmology evolved from the observation of these Greeks who interpreted the natural laws of the heavenly bodies from which, eventually, the Ptolemaic model developed during the second century AD. Centuries later, during the 16th century, the Copernican system further developed the theories surrounding astronomy and cosmology - followed, in the 20th century, by the theories of special relativity and Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Overall, however, the case for cosmology states that the laws of physics work the same everywhere and that there is homogeneity throughout the universe.
'The Holographic Universe', written by Michael Talbot, tells its story in two parts: the first part devotes 55 pages to discussing David Bohm's holographic model of the universe - simplified into everyday language by Talbot. The second part of the book delves into events of the paranormal while, at the same time, attempting to rationalise the holographic model. Talbot introduces the reader to Karl Pribram as well as the philosophies of David Bohm.
Chemistry
Chemistry and biochemistry often go hand-in-hand, existing in parallel with other scientific disciplines such as dietetics [the science of food]. McCance and Widdowson, who produce 'The Composition of Foods' summarises food composition tables and updates much in the way of nutrition as a science. The foreword to the 6th edition has been written by Sir John Krebs while the actual volume itself provides an invaluable source of reference to dieticians and nutritionists the world over.
Meanwhile,'Principles of Biochemistry' by Nelson D has been described as a 'modern approach to biochemistry'. Personally, one of the best biochemistry books I have ever encountered was that written by Patterson - now, sadly, long since out of print. I attribute my successful pass in the biochemistry exams to the presence of Patterson which, by the time I had finished with it, was particularly dog-eared! Nelson D's 'Principles of Biochemistry' really is the next best thing to Patterson and a worthy successor.
Earth Sciences and Geography
Earth sciences are a catch-all term covering a different range of natural sciences from those mentioned above. These relate to the study of the earth and how different parts of it are interlinked to produce that homogenous whole that is the classic feature of the scientific world. If you are interested in the world around you then you may be interested in a lovely book by Gavin Pretor-Pinney. This book 'The Cloud Collector's Handbook' is full of charming pictures, below which you will find a short description of each cloud and space for you to record your own sightings. It certainly gives a new connotation to having your head in the clouds!
Education
If you think about it, there is all the difference in the world between someone who loves school and somebody who loves to learn: it doesn't necessarily follow that, if you love to learn, then you must enjoy school. Education, however, is all about learning for the sheer pleasure of gaining new information. This learning may or may not be associated with school: it can even cover any subject. Evidence of this can be seen in Richard Dawkins' book 'The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution'.
Dawkins goes about educating his readers, explaining to them how fossils can be dated accurately, all about plate tectonics etc, before going into the details of how these may be linked with the global distribution of plants and animals and the effects changes in these physical elements can have on them. Dawkins, whilst making it clear that he is aware [and who could not be?] of the great debate on creation v evolution, doesn't get drawn into the minutiae surrounding this eternal dispute.
Engineering and Technology
One book that I simply have to recommend is a fantastic book written by Jo Marchant. You will find it in our Science and Nature section under the heading of Engineering and Technology. The first thing to say is that this is not some dry and boring technical tome. This book relates the story behind a particularly ancient Greek artefact and what it took to decode its hidden mysteries. The book is called 'Decoding the Heavens: Solving the Mystery of the World's First Computer'. I wish Jo Marchant had found a more intriguing title for her book because this title really doesn't do this book justice.
The book relates the story of the Antikythera Mechanism which has been shown to have amazing capabilities as an astronomical calculator: scientists believe its complexity was at least 1500 years before its time. The Antikythera Mechanism artifact is a good 2,000 years old and was found during a dive in 1901. Scientists have been attempting to unravel its secrets ever since. So, if it's a true-life mystery you are interested, or a book that's a bit different I would strongly recommend this well-written and interesting book of Jo Marchant's.
There are innumerable other sub-genres to be found within our Science and Nature section, covering quite an array of subjects. If you are a fan of the border collie, Barbara Sykes writes a delightful treatise on 'Understanding Border Collies'. This is an excellent book written by somebody who really does understand the intricacies that go to make up this breed of dog and is an absolute 'must have' for all the lovers of border collies out there. Changing from dogs to elephants, I would certainly recommend 'The Elephant Whisperer: Learning about Life, Loyalty and Freedom from a Remarkable Herd of Elephants' - it will really pull on your heartstrings then have you howling with laughter! Check out all the other options within this section - you will probably amaze yourself at the treasure trove of titles hidden within our web pages!
Books on science and nature.
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